Denver children board a bus to travel to a non-neighborhood school in compliance with a court-order desegregation plan in 1969.
Photo: Bill Wunsch/Denver Post via Getty Images
When Kamala Harris upbraided Joe Biden in last week’s Democratic presidential debate for his history of anti-busing activism back in the day, it electrified audiences and made her the clear winner of the evening. The very direct confrontation worked in part because Harris was able to testify to her own experience as a beneficiary of busing as a child, and in part because Biden floundered in answering, lapsing back into states’-rights jargon about the evils of federally mandated busing. More than ever, it made Biden look like a walking political anachronism. He didn’t quite sound like George Wallace with his signature denunciations of “the asinine busing of little school children,” but it was a reminder that Obama’s veep was on the same side of the issue as every racist in America.
But Harris is now in danger of sounding anachronistic herself by calling for a renewed federal commitment to school desegregation along with the use of busing as a tool to achieve it:
Sen. Kamala Harris (D-Calif.) is standing by her support for busing as an effective tool the federal government should use to help desegregate schools.
The 2020 presidential candidate doubled down on her busing comments Sunday in San Francisco after participating in the city’s Pride Parade, according to Bloomberg.
“I support busing,” she told reporters outside city hall. “Listen, the schools of America are as segregated, if not more segregated today than when I was in elementary school. And we need to put every effort, including busing, into play to desegregate the schools.”
Harris’s contention that schools are no more integrated than they were when she was bused in the late 1960s is well-founded, though its accuracy depends on how you measure segregation (by the percentage of isolated school populations, or by the percentage of nonwhite kids who attend majority-white schools). And the research literature continues to show that minority kids benefit from attending racially and economically integrated schools, sometimes quite significantly.
But there’s not much question that the drive to use busing and other unpopular involuntary methods to desegregate schools floundered over the years thanks to a combination of intense political opposition (with Biden’s own posture being a good and hardly unusual example) and the migration of white families out of the affected school districts. When it came to the prospect of cross-district integration of inner-city kids into suburban, majority-white schools (often across major political boundaries) — which was necessarily imposed by unelected judges — the will to persist was steadily eroded by adversity, as P.R. Lockhart recalls:
Busing programs weren’t opposed just in Southern states. In fact, they were often met with even more resistance in the North due to the region’s avoidance of civil rights issues and efforts to claim moral superiority over the South. Busing was heavily criticized in Detroit, for example, where white families boycotted it in 1960 and continued to oppose it in the years after. In Boston, politicians campaigned and won on anti-busing platforms, arguing that black students’ struggles to access a quality education and succeed in schools were not affected by segregation, but were instead the result of pathology. The city also saw a series of violent riots in the 1970s after schools were ordered to desegregate by a court.
As opposition continued, anti-busing proponents argued that their criticism of busing was not opposition to school desegregation as a whole. But it was also true that in districts that had been the most resistant to integration, the absence of busing programs would leave many schools segregated.
In recent years, advocates for equal educational opportunity shifted to other strategies, most notably in the administration of the first African-American president, as this 2010 assessment noted:
[T]he focus from President Obama’s Education Secretary Arne Duncan— former head of Chicago Public Schools — and other urban education leaders is on accountable teachers and schools. There are reasons for that focus, including school integration’s fraught history and sensitive nature, as well as a Supreme Court decision that limits race-based school admissions policies. But for whatever reason, says Richard Kahlenberg, a senior fellow at the Century Foundation and author of several books on education and civil rights, “the whole question of school integration has been off the radar screen in Washington.”
Indeed, in recent years politicians and advocates on the right have focused almost exclusively on “school choice” experiments designed to break the public school “monopoly” on K-12 education entirely, while those on the left have become ever-more-intensely devoted to demanding more funding for traditional public schools and teachers. Until recently, the prevailing trend in K-12 education policy, beloved of business groups and “centrists” in both parties, was standards-and-accountability improvements in “results,” with the George W. Bush–era No Child Left Behind initiative and the subsequent Common Core Curriculum drive probably representing the apogee of that approach. But with liberals and conservatives buying into a grassroots revolt against high-stakes testing, that avenue for improving education equity is looking like a dead end.
So perhaps it is time for something new. And there have been renewed efforts to look at either radical rezoning of school districts to counteract residential segregation (though that has been limited by federal court strictures against race-based education policies) or metro-wide busing that would include charter public schools (notably in Minneapolis).
Part of the problem with the kind of revival of busing initiatives Harris seems to be thinking about is that the term itself is so misleading and invidious, as Dartmouth professor Matthew Delmont, the author of an influential book titled Why Busing Failed, has repeatedly argued:
That word only starts to be used in political debates when people want to oppose school desegregation. That first happened in the late 1950s. It actually starts in New York City, which is the first public protest I found against busing …
School buses had been used starting in the 1920s and ‘30s in the United States. It’s what made the more modern American school system we know now possible. That’s what allowed us to transition from the rural, one-room school houses to larger, more comprehensive schools. That use of school buses was never a controversial issue. It was never a problem among white parents until it got linked to the issue of race and school desegregation. So I would want people to know that busing is a political code word.
The standard differentiation between “forced” and “voluntary” busing, which Biden still uses, represents another heavily loaded set of terms, particularly when it comes to the federal role in encouraging or even demanding desegregation, says Delmont:
[T]he local and the federal roles have always been intertwined with schooling in America, particularly on the school desegregation issue. This sense that communities should only desegregate when they locally decide to do so is farcical. It demonstrates a complete either lack of knowledge or willful misunderstanding of how race and school desegregation played out in the country.
But this is all the more reason Harris has to be careful in reviving the kind of debate that pols like Biden won a generation ago: the very terms are loaded, and to the extent that Americans today even understand contemporary school segregation and possible remedies for it, they still strongly tilt toward neighborhood schools as a policy emphasis, even if that means a significant degree of segregation. A Gallup poll taken in 1999 showed African-Americans split down the middle as to whether maintaining neighborhood schools (48 percent) or busing to achieve racial balance (44 percent) is more important. The same poll, however, showed 90 percent of African-Americans and even 54 percent of whites agreeing that more should be done to integrate schools.
So if Kamala Harris can succeed in reintroducing school desegregation as a relevant topic in national politics, while deemphasizing (without necessarily abandoning) the much-misunderstood and even demonized method of busing to achieve it, she might gain some real gratitude from the black voters she absolutely has to have in the 2020 Democratic nominating contest, and some serious traction against Joe Biden, without damaging her viability elsewhere in the electorate. She might be wise, in fact, to combine this policy commitment with her earlier plan to use federal leverage to raise teacher salaries, and make herself the “public education candidate.” Like so much of Harris’s path to the nomination, it will be tricky, but it’s doable, and would be of great benefit to the country as well as her own political future.
Kamala Harris’s Call to Bring Back Busing Is Bold and Risky
Trump goes on a rant against his home state
It is very hard and expensive to live in New York. Governor Andrew Cuomo uses his Attorney General as a bludgeoning tool for his own purposes. They sue on everything, always in search of a crime. I even got sued on a Foundation which took Zero rent & expenses & gave away…
….more money than it had. Going on for years, originally brought by Crooked Hillary’s Campaign Chair, A.G. Eric Schneiderman, until forced to resign for abuse against women. They never even looked at the disgusting Clinton Foundation. Now Cuomo’s A.G. is harassing all of my….
….New York businesses in search of anything at all they can find to make me look as bad as possible. So, on top of ridiculously high taxes, my children and companies are spending a fortune on lawyers. No wonder people and businesses are fleeing New York in record numbers!
How Much Did Ivanka Embarrass Herself at the G20 Summit?
By Amanda Arnold
She awkwardly attempted to join a conversation between world leaders.
A peek at Biden’s Iowa strategy
Biden’s campaign plans to overwhelm his rivals, fueled by what is expected to be the strongest fundraising in a field of more than two dozencontenders. The campaign already has more than 50 staffers on the ground, with another wave of new hires coming next week.
The hiring, senior campaign officials said, will not stop until after the February caucuses. They plan to have a captain in all 1,677 precincts in the state on caucus night, with backup volunteers assisting in larger precincts.
The goal is to replicate strategies employed by then-Sen. John Kerry (D-Mass.) in 2004 and then-Sen. Barack Obama (D-Ill.) in 2008. Both of those campaigns identified new voters who were otherwise unlikely to caucus and ushered them to the polls. Both Kerry and Obama won Iowa.
French response to viral Ivanka clip: don’t blame us
In a statement, an official with the Élysée — the French presidential palace — stressed that the French government often releases clips of such moments at summits.
This particular one, the official said, “took place in the leaders’ lounge right before the sessions on gender equality of which Ivanka was one of the keynote speakers, so it wasn’t anything more than a moment of exchange like there were 100 more [of] with other leaders.”
The official noted, however, that the clip was released at a time of “a larger narrative in the U.S. about Ivanka’s diplomatic role and that goes beyond us, of course,” but that it wasn’t the French government’s intention to feed into that narrative.
“We didn’t anticipate the reaction, and once again, we are not responsible for the use made of the clip,” the official said.
Kamala Harris’s Call for a Return to Busing Is Bold and Politically Risky
By Ed Kilgore
Harris could benefit by making school desegregation an issue again without excessive emphasis on a much-misunderstood method for achieving it.
A Staten Island Outlet Mall Intends to Defy the Retail Apocalypse
By Justin Davidson
With bargains and lively architecture.
Republicans Prepare to Badger Mueller at First Public Hearing
By Adam K. Raymond
Louie Gohmert, who will question the former counsel, called him an “anal opening.” Let’s hope he keeps it clean on July 17.
Trump didn’t get his military parade, but he may get the next best thing
National Park Service acting director P. Daniel Smith faces plenty of looming priorities this summer, from an $11 billion backlog in maintenance needs to natural disasters like the recent wildfire damage to Big Bend Park.
But in recent days, another issue has competed for Smith’s attention: how to satisfy President Trump’s request to station tanks or other armored military vehicles on the Mall for his planned July Fourth address to the nation.
The ongoing negotiations over whether to use massive military hardware, such as Abrams tanks or Bradley fighting vehicles, as a prop for Trump’s “Salute to America” is just one of many unfinished details when it comes to the celebration planned for Thursday, according to several people briefed on the plan, who requested anonymity to speak frankly.
Another migrant dead
NEW: A 30-year-old man died in ICE custody Sunday, according to a source w knowledge of the matter. He had crossed the border after being returned under the Remain in Mexico Program.
I’ve asked ICE for comment.
There’s a Facebook group where Border Patrol agents make sick, racist jokes about migrants
Members of a secret Facebook group for current and former Border Patrol agents joked about the deaths of migrants, discussed throwing burritos at Latino members of Congress visiting a detention facility in Texas on Monday and posted a vulgar illustration depicting Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez engaged in oral sex with a detained migrant, according to screenshots of their postings.
In one exchange, group members responded with indifference and wisecracks to the post of a news story about a 16-year-old Guatemalan migrant who died in May while in custody at a Border Patrol station in Weslaco, Texas. One member posted a GIF of Elmo with the quote, “Oh well.” Another responded with an image and the words “If he dies, he dies.”
Created in August 2016, the Facebook group is called “I’m 10-15” and boasts roughly 9,500 members from across the country. (10-15 is Border Patrol code for “aliens in custody.”) The group described itself, in an online introduction, as a forum for “funny” and “serious” discussion about work with the patrol. “Remember you are never alone in this family,” the introduction said.
fourth of july
Everything We Know About Trump’s July 4 Event
By Adam K. Raymond
The “Salute to America” is really a salute to Donald Trump.
Hong Kong protester tactics are getting more extreme
Hong Kong protesters have smashed glass and forced their way into a legislative building
Photo: Vivek Prakash/AFP/Getty Images
America’s sanctions, with an assist from government mismanagement, are having deleterious effects on Iran
Iran’s news media was filled with upbeat economic reports last week. Several tankers of oil had been exported to China, and the economy minister said tax collections were up 30 percent. Farm-raised shrimp production had expanded by 400 percent.
“Summer is here!” one article exulted, and online vacation rentals in the country’s tourist spots were a potential growth market.
But on the streets of Iran’s cities, as the United States’ “maximum pressure” sanctions took hold, the view was decidedly less sunny.
Farnaz, a 39-year-old clothing designer and distributor, said she was concerned about “people’s mental states” as jobs disappear and the future becomes more uncertain. With sanctions-induced inflation and the skyrocketing cost of imported goods, she closed her Tehran boutique last year, she said, because “it didn’t make sense anymore.”
“People are cutting back on red meat because the price is too high,” said Djavad Salehi-Isfahani, a Virginia Tech professor visiting his 94-year-old mother in Iran. To the extent Iranians can afford protein, he said, most now get it from locally produced chicken, the price of which has merely doubled.
Things are not getting any calmer in Hong Kong
Hong Kong protesters stormed the Legislative Council on the anniversary of the former British colony’s 1997 return to Chinese rule on Monday amid widespread anger over laws that would allow extraditions to China.
A small group of mostly students wearing hard hats and masks used a metal trolley, poles and pieces of scaffolding to charge again and again at the compound’s reinforced glass, which finally gave.
Some protesters broke into the building but it was unclear how many were still inside. The council, Hong Kong’s mini-parliament, issued a red alert, ordering the protesters to leave immediately.
It did not say what would happen if they didn’t.
A year after the U.S. broke its word, Iran follows suit
Iran’s foreign minister says it has surpassed the limit on its stockpile of low-enriched uranium set by the 2015 nuclear deal with world powers.
The state-run IRNA news agency quoted Mohammad Javad Zarif as making the announcement Monday. The deal limited Iran to 300 kilograms of uranium enriched up to 3.67%.
Trump’s G20 Trip Was a Victory for Dictators
By Jonah Shepp
At the summit, President Trump cemented his friendships with authoritarian leaders like Putin and Kim, while giving short shrift to democratic allies.
Mayor Pete’s aggressive fundraising push is paying off
Democratic presidential candidate Pete Buttigieg’s campaign raised over $24.8 million in the second quarter of 2019.
That haul is a dramatic increase from the previous quarter, when the South Bend, Ind., mayor raised $7 million. Now Buttigieg has $22.6 million cash on hand, according to the campaign.
The campaign said it had 230,000 new donors, putting its total number of donors at 400,000. The average contribution for the second quarter was $47.42.
New White House press secretary Stephanie Grisham was bruised in a scuffle with North Korean guards
The Secret Service intervened as North Korean guards pushed and shoved American reporters to block them from entering the Inter-Korean House of Freedom south of the border, where Trump and Kim were meeting, according to the AP.
Grisham stepped into the chaotic scene to help U.S. media gain access, according to tweets from journalists.
In video footage, Grisham can be heard telling members of the press, “Go, go!” as she pushes past a man standing in front of a camera. Another man carrying a camera runs through the gap she creates.
Before the tussle, press outside the building had been told they would not be let in. But then a U.S. official said they were allowed.
Pentagon: U.S. Is Falling Behind Russia in Global Influence
By Matt Stieb
The white paper doesn’t directly blame the president, but its conclusions might as well.
Kamala Harris’s Star Is Rising, But There Are Major Hurdles Ahead
By Ed Kilgore
Harris is beginning to show the promise that made her an early favorite. But her path to the Democratic nomination is narrow and perilous.
What We Know About Trump’s DMZ Meeting With Kim Jong-un
By Chas Danner
Trump met Kim, stepped into North Korea, and is now impatiently waiting for his Nobel Peace Prize.
Cory Booker Says He Doubts Joe Biden Can Speak ‘Honestly’ About Race
By Matt Stieb
After Biden refused to apologize about his past busing stance, Booker said he “wasn’t sure” if Biden could speak “honestly about race.”
just asking questions
just asking questions
Two MLK Scholars Discuss Explosive, Disputed FBI Files on the Civil-Rights Icon
By Benjamin Hart
David Garrow makes the case that Martin Luther King Jr. may have encouraged a sexual assault. Michael Honey — and many others — are unconvinced.
Trump’s Big Tariff Threat Against China Is Officially a Flop
By Chas Danner
China appears to have called Trump’s bluff and extracted significant concessions, but there’s still no end in sight for the trade war.
Trump said on Saturday that he’d soon present his own plan on busing. (He won’t.) Shorter version of his attention-seeking remarks:
HARRIS: Busing was necessary to secure the full integration of public schools across America.
BIDEN: While I backed integration, busing struck me as an overreach.
TRUMP: The wheels on the bus go round and round. Many people are saying that. Round and round, round and round.
Harris’s plan worked
Harris’ surprise cross-examination of frontrunner Joe Biden produced the third-biggest fundraising bonanza since her launch. The Democratic senator is working to capitalize ahead of a crucial second quarter fundraising deadline: She blanketed news shows with nearly a dozen TV appearances, and her digital team is pumping out clips and other reminders of her interrogating Biden, hoping that Democratic voters will envision her doing the same thing to Donald Trump. …
Inside Harris’ campaign, the first debate was viewed as the unofficial start of the contest, the first big opportunity when primary voters start paying attention to the presidential race. The debate coincided with a new level of comfort she’s described feeling in recent weeks with opening up about her upbringing and personal life, more than a half-dozen aides and allies told POLITICO, something they’ve been gently urging her to do as a way to forge a connection with many voters who don’t know her. …
Harris’ objective was not to fade into the background of an ideological slugfest between Biden and Bernie Sanders, the advisers said. Her campaign had spent months fixated on Biden, whose support from black voters has kept him atop all of the early polls. They gamed out several scenarios in which she could use her personal story as a point of contrast with his decades-long record, including over his opposition to busing.
While walking through her planned exchange with Biden over busing, Harris’ campaign planned for a variety of answers from him, from contrition to a more measured approach to the more forceful denial of the position that he ended up giving — a stance that was called out by fact-checkers as untrue given his past quotes rejecting the wisdom of busing.
Harris herself ended up settling on a line that within minutes would appear in social media memes and just a few hours later would be screen printed on t-shirts selling for $29 on her website: “That little girl was me,” she said, of her desegregated class.
the top line
Democrats Should Fight Doctors and Hospitals, Not Insurers
By Josh Barro
They’re ignoring the key element in our health care system that’s making it unaffordable: providers and the payments they require.